Resources

Environmental Laws & Regulations

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

We help our clients comply with the following federal and state environmental laws and regulations as they pertain to protecting plants, animals, or their habitats:

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Federal Environmental Laws and Regulations

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Endangered Species Act (7 U.S.C. § 136, 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.)

Recognizing that native species of plants and wildlife are of “esthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people,” and that some of those species were at risk of extinction, Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973....

Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. § 703 et seq.)

The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) was enacted in 1918 to end the commercial trade of birds and bird feathers that had decimated many local populations of wild birds by the early 20th century....

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (16 U.S.C. § 668-668d)

Originally the Bald Eagle Protection Act, this law was enacted in 1940 to protect the species selected as a national emblem of the United States. The act was amended in 1962 to include the golden eagle....

Marine Mammal Protection Act (16 U.S.C. § 1361 et seq.)

Acknowledging that (1) marine mammals are resources of great international significance, (2) some species or stocks are in danger of extinction or depletion, (3) species or stocks should not be allowed to become....

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq.)

Congress passed the Clean Water Act (CWA) in 1972 following major amendments to the act’s precursor, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948....

National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. § 4321 et seq.)

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was enacted in 1970 in response to a growing public concern for the environment....

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 U.S.C. § 9601 et seq.)

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, also known as Superfund, authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to respond to releases of hazardous substances that pose a danger to public health, welfare, and the environment. Under the law, the EPA is authorized to respond to uncontrolled and abandoned waste sites, accidents, spills, and emergencies and to force responsible parties to clean contamination and provide reimbursement to recover natural resource damages.

Oil Pollution Act (33 U.S.C. § 2701 et seq.)

The Exxon Valdez oil spill, which resulted in the release of 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska in 1989, impelled Congress to pass the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990....

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Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C. § 1451 et seq.)

Congress passed the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) in 1972 to “meet the challenge of continued growth in the coastal zone.”

Federal Noxious Weed Act (7 U.S.C. § 2801 et seq.)

Congress passed the Federal Noxious Weed Act (FNWA) in 1974 to control the spread of noxious weeds on federal lands. The law grants the United States Secretary of Agriculture the power to designate plants as noxious weeds; prohibit interstate and foreign commerce of noxious weeds; inspect, seize, and destroy noxious weeds; and quarantine areas to prevent the spread of noxious weeds. FNWA also requires all federal land management agencies to develop, coordinate, and fund a noxious weed management program on their lands. These agencies must also complete and implement cooperative agreements to control noxious plant species.

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

The Sikes Act (16 U.S.C. §670)

The Sikes Act became law in 1960. It requires the Department of Defense to develop and implement Integrated Natural Resource Management Plans (INRMPs) that provide for the conservation and enhancement of natural resources on military lands while allowing those lands to continue to meet the needs of military operations. INRMPS are prepared cooperatively with federal and state natural resource agencies and reflect the agreement of all parties concerning conservation, protection, and management of natural resources.

California Environmental Laws and Regulations

California Environmental Quality Act (P.R.C. § 21000 et seq.)

The California legislature enacted the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) in 1970. CEQA was intended to establish a statewide policy on environmental protection that would compliment the National...

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
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Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act (C.W.C. § 13000 et. sec.)

The Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act was established in 1969 and entrusts the State Water Resources Control Board and nine Regional Water Quality Control Boards....

Surface Mining and Reclamation Act of 1975 (P.R.C. § 2710 et seq.)

California’s Surface Mining and Reclamation Act (SMARA) of 1975 is implemented by the California Department of Conservation, Office of Mine Reclamation. The Act was established to provide the State regulatory authority over surface mining operations and develop a nexus under which environmental damage due to mining could be remediated. Specifically, the Act ensures that adverse environmental impacts resulting from surface mining operations are minimized, and mined lands are reclaimed to a usable condition. The Act also encourages the production and protection of the State’s mining resources.

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Native Plant Protection Act (F.G.C. § 1900 et seq.)

California’s Native Plant Protection Act (NPPA) was established in 1977. It allows the Fish and Game Commission to designate plants as rare or endangered. The NPPA prohibits the take of endangered or rare native plants with certain exceptions: agricultural and nursery operations, emergencies, and after proper notification of the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, for vegetation removal from previously disturbed areas such as roads and canals. Currently, there are 64 species, subspecies, and varieties protected as Rare under the NPPA.

Natural Community Conservation Planning Act (F.G.C. § 2800 et seq.)

California’s Natural Community Conservation Planning Act (NCCPA) was established in 1991 as a voluntary, broad-based planning framework that considers the need to protect and conserve California’s wildlife and natural habitats while also allowing appropriate, reasonable economic development to occur. The NCCPA encourages collaboration of federal, state, and local governments and private entities to work together to maintain the viability of natural communities and promote a greater sensitivity of California’s critical biodiversity.

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California Endangered Species Act (F.G.C. § 2050 et seq.)

The California Endangered Species Act (CESA) was enacted in 1970 in response to mounting concern about the decline of wildlife species in California. With the Act, California became the first state to prohibit....

Other Relevant Sections of the California Fish and Game Code

Section 1602.

This section pertains to streambed or channel alteration and states that an entity may not substantially divert or obstruct the natural flow of, or substantially change or use any material from the bed, channel, or bank of any river, stream, or lake, or dispose of debris, waste, or other material containing crumbled, flaked, or ground pavement where it may pass into any river, stream or lake. For a project to gain permission to work in any waterway regulated by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), written notification to the CDFW is required, which specifically describes the project and sufficiently outlines the anticipated extent of environmental disturbance.

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Section 3503.

This section specifically addresses impacts on birds. It states that it is unlawful to take, possess, or needlessly destroy the nest or eggs of any bird. Typically, if a qualified biologist determines that a project could impact nesting birds, avoidance and mitigation measures are recommended to reduce or eliminate potential negative impacts from project activities.

Section 3503.5.

This section specifically pertains to raptors or birds-of-prey. It states that it is unlawful to take, possess, or destroy any birds in the order Falconiformes or Stigiformes (birds-of-prey) or to take, possess, or destroy the nest or eggs of any such bird. Mitigation measures such as disturbance-free buffers are typically used to avoid project-related impacts to these species.

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Section 3511.

This section addresses “fully protected” bird species. These are species for which no take is permitted other than take for scientific research....

Section 3513.

This section addresses protections for migratory birds. It states that it is unlawful to take or possess any migratory nongame bird as designated in the Migratory Bird Treaty Act or any part of such migratory nongame bird except as provided by rules and regulations adopted by the Secretary of the Interior under provisions of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Section 4500.

This section addresses take of marine mammals, stating that it is unlawful to take any marine mammal except in accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 or provisions of Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations or pursuant to subdivision (b) of this section. Subdivision (b) states that the Commission can assume jurisdiction over the regulation and take of marine mammals where federal laws and regulations permit. Marine mammals include the following species: sea otters, whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, and sea lions.

Section 4700.

This section addresses “fully protected” mammal species. These are species for which no take is permitted other than take for scientific research. This section states that fully protected mammal species or parts....

Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC
Colibri Ecological Consulting LLC

Section 5050.

This section addresses “fully protected” reptiles and amphibians. These are species for which no take is permitted other than take for scientific research. This section states that fully protected amphibian....

Nothing is more priceless and worthy of preservation than the rich array of animal life with which our country has been blessed. It is a many-faceted treasure, of value to scholars, scientists, and nature lovers alike, and it forms a vital part of the heritage we all share as Americans.

— President Richard Nixon upon signing the Endangered Species Act of 1973 into law

For Aspiring Wildlife Biologists, Botanists, and Ecological Consultants

Publications

Adkins, J. Y., D. D. Roby, D. E. Lyons, K. N. Courtot, K. Collis, H. R. Carter, W. D. Shuford, and P. J. Capitolo. 2014. Recent population size, trends, and limiting factors for the double‐crested cormorant in western North America. Journal of Wildlife Management 78:1131–1142.

Ainley, D. G., J. A. Santora, P. J. Capitolo, J. C. Field, J. N. Beck, R. D. Carle, E. Donnelly-Greenan, G. J. McChesney, M. Elliott, R. W. Bradley, K. Lindquist, P. Nelson, J. Roletto, P. Warzybok, M. Hester, and J. Jahncke. 2018. Ecosystem-based management affecting Brandt’s Cormorant resources and populations in the central California Current region. Biological Conservation 217:407–418.

Becker, B. H., H. R. Carter, R. P. Henderson, A. M. Weinstein, and M. W. Parker. 2016. Status and monitoring of Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, 2012–2015. Marine Ornithology 44:63–70.

Benscoter, A. M., J. S. Reece, R. F. Noss, L. A. Brandt, F. J. Mazzotti, S. Romañach, and J. I. Watling. 2013. Threatened and endangered subspecies with vulnerable ecological traits also have high susceptibility to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation. PLOS One 8: e70647.

Biddy, G. 2017. Blunt-nosed leopard lizard use of an agricultural crop for shade. Sonoran Herpetologist 30:15.

Briggs, K. T., K. F. Dettman, D. B. Lewis, and W. B. Tyler. 1984. Phalarope feeding in relation to autumn upwelling off California. Marine Birds, Their Feeding Ecology and Commercial Fisheries Relationships. Canadian Wildlife Service Special Publication. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, 51–63.

Briggs, K. T., D. B. Lewis, W. B. Tyler, G. L. Hunt Jr. 1981. Brown pelicans in southern California: habitat use and environmental fluctuations. Condor 83:1–15.

Briggs, K. T., W. B. Tyler, and D. B. Lewis. 1985. Comparison of ship and aerial surveys of birds at sea. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:405–411.

Briggs, K. T., W. B. Tyler, and D. B. Lewis. 1985. Aerial surveys for seabirds: methodological experiments. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:412–417.

Briggs, K. T., W. B. Tyler, and D. B. Lewis, and D. R. Carlson. 1982. Bird communities at sea off California: 1975 to 1983. Studies in Avian Biology No. 11. Cooper Ornithological Society.

Briggs, K. T., W. B. Tyler, D. B. Lewis, P. R. Kelly, and D. A. Croll. 1983. Brown Pelicans in central and northern California. Journal of Field Ornithology 54:353–373.

Brock, K. A., J. S. Reece, and L. M. Ehrhart. 2009. Effects of artificial beach nourishment on marine turtles: differences between loggerhead and green turtles. Restoration Ecology 17:297–307.

Brown, A. C., and E. Elias. 2008. Extralimital records of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) in northern California. Northwestern Naturalist 89:54–56.

Burton, R. K. 1996. Single-nest exclosures to protect endangered California Least Terns from off-highway vehicle traffic. Master’s Thesis. San Jose State University.

Burton, R. K. 2000. Ecology of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) from the middle and late Holocene of California. Ph.D. Dissertation, U.C. Santa Cruz.

Burton, R. K., D. Gifford-Gonzalez, J. J. Snodgrass, and P. L. Koch. 2002. Isotopic tracking of prehistoric pinniped foraging and distribution along the central California coast: preliminary results, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12:4–11s.

Burton R. K., and P. L. Koch. 1999. Isotopic tracking of foraging and long-distance migration in northeastern Pacific pinnipeds. Oecologia 119:578–585.

Burton, R. K., P. L. Koch, J. J. Snodgrass, and D. Gifford-Gonzalez. 1999. Broadening ecological perspectives: an isotopic study of Holocene fossil pinnipeds. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(3) suppl.

Burton, R. K., J. J. Snodgrass, D. Gifford-Gonzalez, T. Guilderson, T. Brown, and P. L. Koch. 2001. Holocene changes in the ecology of northern fur seals: insights from stable isotopes and archaeofauna. Oecologia 128:107–115.

Burton, R. K., J. J. Snodgrass, D. Gifford-Gonzalez, and P. L. Koch. 1999. Variations in the migratory and reproductive ecology of Holocene northern fur seals: evidence from stable isotopes and archaeofauna. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

Burton, R. K., J. J. Snodgrass, D. Gifford-Gonzalez, and P. L. Koch. 2000. The ecology of northern fur seals from the Holocene of California: evidence from stable isotopes and archaeofauna. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Applications of Stable Isotope Techniques to Ecological Studies.

Capitolo, P. 2009. Farallon Islands. In Encycolpedia of Islands, University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Capitolo, P. J., H. R. Carter, D. L. Jaques, G. J. McChesney, W. R. McIver, T. W. Keeney, and G. Smith. 2012. Roosting patterns of Brown Pelicans at San Nicolas Island, 1972-2006. Waterbirds 35:443–452.

Capitolo, P. J., H. R. Carter, G. J. McChesney, and M. W. Parker. 2005. Common Murres prospecting within cormorant colonies in Del Norte and Humboldt Counties, California, 1996 to 2004. Northwestern Naturalist 86:144–150.

Capitolo, P. J., H. R. Carter, J. L. Yee, G. J. McChesney, M. W. Parker, R. J. Young, R. T. Golightly, and W. B. Tyler. 2019. Changes in breeding population sizes of Double-crested Cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus in the Humboldt Bay Area, California, 1924–2017. Marine Ornithology 47:115–126.

Capitolo, P. J., L. J. Jesus, A. B. Harper, A. M. Fish, and A. C. Hull. 2020. Fall migration of radio-tagged Broad-winged Hawks (Buto platypterus) in California. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 132:15–21.

Capitolo, P. J., G. J. McChesney, H. R. Carter, M. W. Parker, L. E. Eigner, and R. T. Golightly. 2014. Changes in breeding population sizes of Brandt’s Cormorants Phalacrocorax penicillatus in the Gulf of the Farallones, California, 1979–2006. Marine Ornithology 42:35–48.

Capitolo, P., W. Richardson, R. Burnett, and P. Pyle. 2000. First record of an Olive-backed Pipit in California. Western Birds 31:112–116.

Carter, H. R., V. A. Lee, G. W. Page, M. W. Parker, R. G. Ford, G. Swartzman, S. W. Kress, B. R. Siskin, S. W. Singer, and D. M. Fry. 2003. The 1986 Apex Houston oil spill in central California: seabird injury assessments and litigation process. Marine Ornithology 31:9–19.

Carter, H. R., G. J. McChesney, D. L. Jaques, C. S. Strong, M. W. Parker, J. E. Takekawa, D. L. Jory, and D. L. Whitworth. 1992. Breeding populations of seabirds in California, 1989-1991. Volume I, population estimates. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Dixon, California; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Complex, Newark, California.

Carter, H. R., G. J. McChesney, D. L. Jaques, C. S. Strong, M. W. Parker, J. E. Takekawa, D. L. Jory, and D. L. Whitworth. 1992. Breeding populations of seabirds in California, 1989-1991. Volume 2, colony maps and appendices. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Dixon, California; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Complex, Newark, California.

Carter, H. R., M. W. Parker, J. S. Koepke, and D. L. Whitworth. 2015. Breeding of the Ashy Storm-Petrel in central Mendocino County, California. Western Birds 46:49–65.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 1999. An animal track casting method using dolomite, sand, and spray adhesive. California Fish and Game 85:138–139.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2001. Use of a car alarm sequence in the Northern Mockingbird repertoire. California Fish and Game 87:115–116.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2003. Responses of San Joaquin kit foxes to an oil-gas well fire. California Fish and Game 89:102–105.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2004. Occurrence of California mule deer in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Transactions of the Western Section of The Wildlife Society 40:127–128.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2005. Aggressive behaviour exhibited by a San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica. Canadian Field-Naturalist 119:134.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2005. Otocyon megalotis. Mammalian Species 766:1–5.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2007. Marking of novel objects by kit fox. California Fish and Game 93:103–106.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2007. Hypothetical relationships between the San Joaquin kit fox, California grizzly bear, and gray wolf on the pre-European California landscape. Endangered Species Update 24:14–19.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2007. Use of spadefoot toads by western burrowing owls. Central Valley Bird Club Bulletin 10:51.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2008. Spea hammondii (Western Spadefoot Toad). Predation and use as burrow decorations. Herpetological Review 39:80–81.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2008. Common Chuckwalla (Sauromalus ater): Behavior. Sonoran Herpetologist 21:54.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2009. Predation and behavioral interactions between horned lizards and arid land foxes. Sonoran Herpetologist 22:6–7.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2009. Species at risk: Golden Eagle predation on arid-land foxes. Endangered Species Update 26:10–14.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2010. A review of anthropogenic-sourced cover items used by the Desert Night Lizard (Xantusia vigilis). Sonoran Herpetologist 23:23–24.

Clark, H.O., Jr. 2010. Herpetofauna of Mare Island, Solano County, California. Sonoran Herpetologist 23:127–129.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2011. The history of arid-land fox discoveries in North America. Archives of Natural History 38:300–312.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2011. Reptiles and amphibians as Loggerhead Shrike prey. Sonoran Herpetologist 24:20–22.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2011. Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) predation on a Pacific Gopher Snake (Pituophis catenifer catenifer). Sonoran Herpetologist 24:117–118.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2013. Western toads as wildlife ambassadors. FrogLog 21:54.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2014. Compilation of kit fox and swift fox literature. Western Wildlife 1:12–27.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2014. Encounter between a striped racer (Coluber lateralis) and a southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata). Sonoran Herpetologist 27:79.

Clark, H. O., Jr. 2017. Possible predation of a western burrowing owl by common ravens. Central Valley Bird Club Bulletin 20:65–69.

Clark, H. O. Jr. 2021. Local amphibians provide an educational opportunity: part II. Sonoran Herpetologist 34(1):21.

Clark, H. O., Jr., G. L. Biddy, and P. B. Alexander. 2019. Northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) trapped in a tar seep near McKittrick, Kern County, California. Sonoran Herpetologist 32:35.

Clark, H. O., Jr., B. L. Cypher, P. A. Kelly, D. F. Williams, and S. D. Clifton. 2002-2003. Use of a hair-sampling tube to detect the San Joaquin kit fox. Transactions of the Western Section of The Wildlife Society 38/39:29–30.

Clark, H. O., Jr., R. R. Duke, M. C. Orland, R. T. Golightly, and S. I. Hagen. 2007. The San Joaquin kit fox in north-central California: a review. Transactions of the Western Section of The Wildlife Society 43:27–36.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and J. R. Gworek. 2008. Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi (Valley Gartersnake). Habitat and behavior. Herpetological Review 39:474.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and S. I. Hagen. 2008. Notes on a Mount Lyell Salamander observed near Nevada Falls, Yosemite National Park, California. Sonoran Herpetologist 21:122-123.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and S. I. Hagen. 2013. Plestiodon gilberti (Gilbert’s Skink). Predation. Herpetological Review 44:681.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and S. I. Hagen. 2016. Notes on a Mount Lyell salamander observed near Nevada Falls, Yosemite National Park, California—Revisited ten years later. Sonoran Herpetologist 29:64.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and S. I. Hagen. 2017. Local amphibians provide an educational opportunity. Sonoran Herpetologist 30:17.

Clark, H. O., Jr., J. D. Murdoch, D. P. Newman, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2009. Vulpes corsac. Mammalian Species 832:1–8.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and D. P. Newman. 2012. Endangered birds: Comparing research effort on the specific and subspecific levels. Endangered Species Update 26:70–74.

Clark, H. O., Jr., D. P. Newman, S. I. Hagen. 2007. Analysis of San Joaquin kit fox element data within the California Natural Diversity Database: A case for data reliability. Transactions of the Western Section of The Wildlife Society 43:37–42.

Clark, H. O., Jr., D. P. Newman, J. D. Murdoch, J. Tseng, Z. H. Wang, and R. B. Harris. 2008. Vulpes ferrilata. Mammalian Species 821:1-6.

Clark, H. O., Jr., D. P. Newman, C. J. Randel, III, and M. D. Meyer. 2008. Temperature tests for diurnal live trapping shade configurations. Transactions of the Western Section of The Wildlife Society 44:1–3.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and M. C. Orland. 2008. Comparison of two camera trap systems for detection of American marten on a winter landscape. California Fish and Game 94:53–59.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and H. K. Pigage. 2014. New flea (Siphonaptera) record for the Heermann’s kangaroo rat (Dipodomys heermanni), San Luis Obispo County, California. Western North American Naturalist 74:364–365.

Clark, H. O., Jr., H. K. Pigage, C. A. Wilkinson, and R. K. Burton. 2014. Ectoparasites on the giant kangaroo rat, Carrizo Plain National Monument, San Luis Opispo County, California. Western Wildlife 1:8–11.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and D. L. Plumpton. 2005. A simple one-way door design for passive relocation of western burrowing owls. California Fish and Game 91:286–289.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and R. M. Powers. 2015. Compilation of island fox literature. Western Wildlife 2:1–6.

Clark, H. O., Jr., R. M. Powers, K. L. Uschyk, and R. K. Burton. 2015. Observations of antagonistic and non-antagonistic interactions between the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and the American badger (Taxidea taxus). Southwestern Naturalist 60:106–110.

Clark, H. O., Jr., K. W. Setser, and R. K. Burton. 2013. Pituophis catenifer (Pacific Gopher Snake). Diet. Herpetological Review 44:696–697.

Clark, H. O., Jr., H. S. Shellhammer, and S. D. Gaimari. 2006. Ectoparasites found on salt marsh harvest mice in the northern salt marshes of Grizzly Bay, California. California Fish and Game 92:52–54.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and R. A. Shields. 2012. Loggerhead shrike predation on the southern alligator lizard, common side-blotched lizard, and western fence lizard. Sonoran Herpetologist 25:132–133.

Clark, H. O., Jr., and N. R. Sisk. 2007. Predation of a western burrowing owl by an apparent prairie falcon. Central Valley Bird Club Bulletin 10:49–50.

Clark, H. O., Jr., G. D. Warrick, B. L. Cypher, P. A. Kelly, D. F. Williams, and D. E. Grubbs. 2005. Competitive interactions between endangered kit foxes and non-native red foxes. Western North American Naturalist 65:153–163.

Clark, J., J. Davis, T. Newberry, and D. Suddjian. 2000. A Visitor’s Guide: Birds of the UCSC Arboretum and Environs. University of California, Santa Cruz, CA.

Clark, R.W., S. W. Dorr, M. D. Whitford, G. A. Freymiller, and S. R. Hein. 2016. Comparison of antisnake displays in the sympatric desert rodents Xerospermophilus tereticaudus (round-tailed ground squirrels) and Dipodomys deserti (desert kangaroo rats). Journal of Mammalogy 97:1709–1717.

Clark, R.W., S. W. Dorr, M. D. Whitford, G. A. Freymiller, and B. J. Putman. 2016. Activity cycles and foraging behaviors of free-ranging sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes): the ontogeny of hunting in a precocial vertebrate. Zoology 119:196–206.

Clucas, B., T. N. Smith, J. Carlino, S. Daniel, A. Davis, L. Douglas, M. M. Gulak, S. L. Kanga Livingstone, S. Lopez, K. J. Kerr, K. M. Koehn, K. A. Lloyd, J. A. Medina, E. A. S. Miller, A. M. Prior, M. Sandoval, A. Shedlock, and S. Thornton. 2020. A novel method using camera traps to record effectiveness of artificial perches for raptors. California Fish and Wildlife 106:203–214.

Collar, D., J. S. Reece, R. Mehta, M. Alfaro, and P. Wainwright. 2014. Imperfect convergence in morphological systems: variable responses among cranial structures underlie transitions to durophagy in moray eels. American Naturalist 183:E168–E184.

Cortez, C. B., C. M. Desbiens, R. E. Langford, M. M. McCray, W. D. Palmer, C. R. Picariello, J. Rivera, M. K. Simmons, B. D. Owens, and J. S. Reece. 2015. Additional evidence for reciprocal monophyly of hagfish subfamilies Myxininae and Eptatretinae: a class exercise in phylogenetics. Omnino 5:20–37.

Cutting, K. A., K. A. Hobson, J. J. Rotella, J. M. Warren, J. Y. Takekawa, S. EW De La Cruz, and M. Parker. 2014. Relative contribution of lipid sources to eggs of lesser scaup. Journal of Avian Biology 45:197–201.

Cypher, B. L., H. O. Clark, Jr., P. A. Kelly, C. Van Horn Job, G. W. Warrick, and D. F. Williams. 2001. Interspecific interactions among wild canids: implications for the conservation of endangered San Joaquin kit foxes. Endangered Species Update 18:171–174.

Davis, J. 1994. Using satellites to track wildlife. In Proceedings of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association regional conference, Stockton, CA.

Davis, J. N. 1995. Hutton’s Vireo (Vireo huttoni). In The Birds of North America, No. 189 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Davis, J. N. 1998. Songbird dynamics. Audubon. March-April:12.

Davis, J. N. 1999. Lawrence’s Goldfinch (Carduelis lawrencei). In The Birds of North America, No. 480. (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Davis, J. N. 2001. After malar, what’s next? Birding 33:10.

Davis, J. N. 2001. A closer look: Lawrence’s Goldfinch. Birding 33:213–221.

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